Tuesday, July 16, 2013

Adam and Eve : A primer on our parents

There are different scientific methods applied in the anthropological field. The patrilineal study using Y chromosome and matrilineal study using mtDNA are among the most popular. 


DNA is contained in 46 chromosomes found in 23 pairs in the nucleus of nearly every cell of the human body.


Within the 46, chromosone, the y-chromosome is inherited more or less unchanged from father to son to grandson, indefinitely. Chromosomes contain the DNA that determines our inherited characteristics, and the y-chromosome is one of the 46-chromosomes in the nucleus of each of the cells of all human males. Most chromosomes, including the two x-chromosomes possessed by females, get recombined or shuffled each generation before being passed down to offspring. But the y-chromosome is unique in remaining more or less unchanged when passed from father to son. Thus while most chromosomes will contain a random mixture of genetic codes from one's grandparents and great-grandparents, a male's y-chromosome will be identical or nearly identical to that of his father, grandfather, great-grandfather and beyond for countless generations

Females cannot participate directly in y-chromosome studies, having no y-chromosomes. However if they wish to research their father's patrilineage, they can help sponsor their father or a brother or other patrilateral relative of their father.

Y Chromosome Haplogroups of nations

The analysis of Y Chromosome yield some surprising results. The Han Chinese and SE Asia Malay got a common father of O Adam. While Mongols who look yellow like Chinese are predominantly C Adam. Meanwhile, the Tibetans are mostly D Adam.

The Pacific Oceania Malay are mostly C Adam, same as Mongols, even though they are completely different.

The Europeans results are less surprising. There are mostly sons of R Adam.


The matrilineality can by traced via Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is found outside the nucleus of the cell and is thus independent of the chromosomes. Like the y-chromosome, mtDNA is not recombined or shuffled, and it is passed more or less unchanged from mothers to their children, both males and females. Males do not pass on their mtDNA, so it can only be used to study maternal lines. 

MtDNA haplogroup of nations

The mtDNA has far more diversity in Asia. The mothers of East Asian such as, Han Chinese, Mongolia, Thailand and Tibet look quite similar. Even then East Asians, Malay, Thai and India have quite a large similarity in their maternal heritage.

Finding out your parents

National Geographic Society and IBM started the Genographic Project aims to map historical human migration patterns by collecting and analyzing DNA samples from hundreds of thousands of people from around the world.

The project sells self-testing kits and the price of Phase II "Geno2.0" testing is US$199.95 for a far more comprehensive test. Anyone in the world can order a kit with which a mouth scraping (buccal swab) is obtained, analyzed and the DNA information placed on an Internet accessible database. Genetic markers on mitochondrial DNA (HVR1) and Y-chromosomes (12 microsatellite markers and haplogroup-defining SNPs) are used to trace the participant's distant ancestry, and each customer is provided with their genetic history via a secure website.


Anonymous said...

Hi Veritas, is this silmilar to National geographic DNA test for ancestry? Thanks for the great article.

Veritas said...

Nat Geo DNA test for ancestry is probably much more comprehensive. I would like to try it out as well.

It has Y chromosome and mtDNA.

Anonymous said...

So if I wear fake crooked teeth, gag glasses with slitty eyes in them, and speak English in a retarded manner, would that be racist to Chinese, or am I just portraying what most of them are really like in Singapore?

Veritas said...

Is Tamil Nadu dark?

Anonymous said...

A dark piece of shit is still a dark piece of shit, a neh can't even fire a rocket successfully, how many medal have they won? Talk big only...

Anonymous said...

Your 'racist' is showing, veritas!

Anonymous said...

It's funny how you guys can talk a lot online anonymously. Say these things to an Indian guy in real life, you'll piss your pants in fear.

Bunch of cowards and keyboard warriors.

Veritas said...

Sorry I have to refute Jennani Durai ST report.

Also not too bad to have keyboard warrior here compared to those Arabs in Dubai who have real balls.

Feel bless.

Anonymous said...

God, your English is atrocious.

Anyway, the fact that you do these things behind a mask rather than while showing your face, is already a sign of cowardice.

Most of your blog posts are about Indians, and praising the Chinese. Why? Do you have an inferiority complex of some sort?

I hope you deal with it soon.

Veritas said...

please refute my posting instead. This sort of dialog is boring, and soon I may not reply.

Anonymous said...

I have clearly called you out, and you seem to dislike it. Never mind that.

Also, anyone would feel that dressing up and colouring your face to look like a caricature of another race is wildly racist. Look up 'blackface' on wikipedia. Only you would say "No one in right mind would link a few man in front of camera wearing black skin and Indian garment as racist.", probably because of your disgraceful prejudice against Indians.

If it were a group of Indians dressing up with makeup to look like another race, you would have called it racism, but since the it is Chinese who are making fun of Indians, you thin it's perfectly fine.

Am I wrong to say that? Do you not hate Indians?

Veritas said...

Unless you want Tamil Nadu to go Independence, else except that a lot of you are very black.

And Tamil Nadu wanted to go independent.

Also it just happen for a few guy posted in black. Most in UOB are white. Durai deliberately post the all black picture to accuse Chinese.

Anonymous said...

Yes, Tamils have dark skin, and nobody denies that. But someone else pretending to be of another race and making fun of them is racism, no way of looking around it.

It is also a fact that orientals have tiny, slit-like eyes, and when Miley Cyrus made this pose:

Everyone called it racist, which it was.

Also, I have nothing to do with Tamil Nadu, my family has been in Singapore for generations. Don't talk as though Singapore is a Chinese country.

Veritas said...

Anyone insulting yellow is insulting Indian as well. You should be angry. Remember your friends in Manipur, Sikhim, Ladakh, Arunachal, Mizoram, Megalaya, nagaland.

Also you look at my blog, UOB guys take a lot of picture with yellow.

Anonymous said...

Again, you are trying to dissociate Indians from Singapore, by speaking as though all of them have ties to and belong in India. Singapore is NOT a Chinese country.

They were making fun of Indians, and dressing up as racist caricatures. You can't deny that.

Veritas said...

when did i disassociate Indians with Singapore? Please state.

If you look at the posture of the brown skin, the so call "offensive" photo has the same posture as those yellow people.

Just that dark skin make them stand out and look unnatural.

Anonymous said...

China already said that to India in 1962 face to face, who piss in their pants in fear?

Anonymous said...

Durai just need to paint herself yellow will do, we have no problem with that, yellow or black no different and all came out from Africa.

Anonymous said...

Hey Veritas- your vitriolic tirades against Indians- I understand where you're coming from. Singapore is not only the most unemotional in the world but also the one of the worst pessimists- so your frustration vented as racism.
BTW it is interesting to note that Alice above referred to you as a lady. I believe you are a transgender.